Acute urinary retention (AUR) – A sudden inability to pass urine. Acute urinary retention and is considered a medical emergency, and requires immediate treatment.
Agonist – An agonist binds to a receptor to produce a biological response.
Antagonist – An antagonist binds to and blocks a receptor to inhibit or reduce a biological response.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) – Non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate, which can cause urinary symptoms, including a frequent or urgent need to urinate, which can reduce quality of life.
Endometriosis – A debilitating condition in which endometrial tissue, which usually forms the lining of the uterus, also develops outside this organ. Endometriosis can be extremely painful and can interfere with daily life.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) – A hormone released from the pituitary gland that stimulates production of testosterone in men or oestrogen in women.
Gonadotrophins – These are hormones that are released from the pituitary gland in response to gonadotrophin-releasing hormone. They act directly on the testes or ovaries to stimulate production of testosterone or oestrogen. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are examples of gonadotrophins.
Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) – A hormone that initiates the production of sex hormones. It is secreted from the hypothalamus in the brain and exerts its action on the pituitary gland. This causes release of gonadotrophins from the pituitary gland which directly stimulates synthesis of sex hormone.
Laparoscopy – A type of minimally invasive surgery that investigates the abdomen, and is used to diagnose gastroenterological, urological, and gynaecological conditions; for example, endometriosis. It is also known as keyhole surgery.
Luteinizing hormone (LH) – A hormone released from the pituitary gland that stimulates production of testosterone in men or oestrogen in women.
Prostate cancer – Prostate cancer develops when cells in the prostate grow uncontrollably, forming a tumour in the prostate.
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) – A protein produced by cells in the prostate. Elevated levels of PSA can be a non-specific marker that indicates a problem with the prostate. Levels of PSA may be used clinically to measure the progression of a condition and the effectiveness of treatment.
Uterine fibroids – Non-cancerous growths that develop in the uterus. They typically affect women of reproductive age, and in severe cases may cause pain and infertility.